MADOU FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROFABRICATION PDF

Origins Edit Microfabrication technologies originate from the microelectronics industry, and the devices are usually made on silicon wafers even though glass , plastics and many other substrate are in use. Micromachining, semiconductor processing, microelectronic fabrication, semiconductor fabrication , MEMS fabrication and integrated circuit technology are terms used instead of microfabrication, but microfabrication is the broad general term. Traditional machining techniques such as electro-discharge machining, spark erosion machining, and laser drilling have been scaled from the millimeter size range to micrometer range, but they do not share the main idea of microelectronics-originated microfabrication: replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures. This parallelism is present in various imprint , casting and moulding techniques which have successfully been applied in the microregime. For example, injection moulding of DVDs involves fabrication of submicrometer-sized spots on the disc. Processes Edit Microfabrication is actually a collection of technologies which are utilized in making microdevices.

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Origins Edit Microfabrication technologies originate from the microelectronics industry, and the devices are usually made on silicon wafers even though glass , plastics and many other substrate are in use. Micromachining, semiconductor processing, microelectronic fabrication, semiconductor fabrication , MEMS fabrication and integrated circuit technology are terms used instead of microfabrication, but microfabrication is the broad general term.

Traditional machining techniques such as electro-discharge machining, spark erosion machining, and laser drilling have been scaled from the millimeter size range to micrometer range, but they do not share the main idea of microelectronics-originated microfabrication: replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures.

This parallelism is present in various imprint , casting and moulding techniques which have successfully been applied in the microregime. For example, injection moulding of DVDs involves fabrication of submicrometer-sized spots on the disc. Processes Edit Microfabrication is actually a collection of technologies which are utilized in making microdevices.

Some of them have very old origins, not connected to manufacturing , like lithography or etching. Polishing was borrowed from optics manufacturing , and many of the vacuum techniques come from 19th century physics research. Electroplating is also a 19th-century technique adapted to produce micrometre scale structures, as are various stamping and embossing techniques.

To fabricate a microdevice, many processes must be performed, one after the other, many times repeatedly. These processes typically include depositing a film , patterning the film with the desired micro features, and removing or etching portions of the film.

Thin film metrology is used typically during each of these individual process steps, to ensure the film structure has the desired characteristics in terms of thickness t , refractive index n and extinction coefficient k , for suitable device behavior. For example, in memory chip fabrication there are some 30 lithography steps, 10 oxidation steps, 20 etching steps, 10 doping steps, and many others are performed.

The complexity of microfabrication processes can be described by their mask count. This is the number of different pattern layers that constitute the final device. Modern microprocessors are made with 30 masks while a few masks suffice for a microfluidic device or a laser diode. Microfabrication resembles multiple exposure photography, with many patterns aligned to each other to create the final structure. Substrates Edit Microfabricated devices are not generally freestanding devices but are usually formed over or in a thicker support substrate.

For electronic applications, semiconducting substrates such as silicon wafers can be used. For optical devices or flat panel displays, transparent substrates such as glass or quartz are common.

The substrate enables easy handling of the micro device through the many fabrication steps. Often many individual devices are made together on one substrate and then singulated into separated devices toward the end of fabrication. Deposition or growth Edit Microfabricated devices are typically constructed using one or more thin films see Thin film deposition.

The purpose of these thin films depends on the type of device. Electronic devices may have thin films which are conductors metals , insulators dielectrics or semiconductors. Optical devices may have films which are reflective, transparent, light guiding or scattering. Films may also have a chemical or mechanical purpose as well as for MEMS applications. Examples of deposition techniques include:.

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Fundamentals of Microfabrication

With this movement have come new types of applications and rapid advances in the technologies and techniques needed to fabricate the increasingly miniature devices that are literally changing our world. A MEMS technology and applications have grown at a tremendous pace, while structural dimensions have grown smaller and smaller, reaching down even to the molecular level. A bestseller in its first edition, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition reflects the many developments in methods, materials, and applications that have emerged recently. Renowned author Marc Madou has added exercise sets to each chapter, thus answering the need for a textbook in this field. Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition offers unique, in-depth coverage of the science of miniaturization, its methods, and materials. From the fundamentals of lithography through bonding and packaging to quantum structures and molecular engineering, it provides the background, tools, and directions you need to confidently choose fabrication methods and materials for a particular miniaturization problem.

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