It is different from Lignosus sacer, a name used in the early 19th century. In the year , studies done by local researchers showed that out of a total of 38 types of edible wild mushrooms in Malaysia, 19 types were used for medicinal purposes by the rural and indigenous communities Chang and Lee, Besides as a tonic to maintain health, this fungus was believed to have more than 15 medicinal usages according to the different tribes. This included treatment for fever, cough, asthma, breast cancer, food poisoning, healing wounds and etc. The underground fungus tuber or sclerotia will remain there for months, years or decades. The mushroom will only sprout out from the ground when nature calls.
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Fung: moc. Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Lignosus rhinocerus, the tiger milk mushroom, is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms used by the indigenous people of Southeast Asia and China.
It has been used to treat breast cancer. In comparison, LR-CW did not show significant cytotoxicity against the two corresponding human normal cells, B5 human breast cell and NL 20 human lung cell. Sephadex G gel filtration fractionation of LR-CW yielded a high-molecular-weight and a low-molecular-weight fraction.
The high-molecular-weight fraction contains mainly carbohydrate Only the high-molecular-weight fraction exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cells, with IC50 of Thus, the cytotoxic action of the LR-CW is due to the high-molecular-weight fraction, either the proteins or protein-carbohydrate complex.
Introduction Mushroom has been consumed by many societies throughout the world due to its tastiness, high nutritional values, and pharmacological properties [ 1 , 2 ]. It is well established that mushroom extracts contain a wide variety of compounds such as polysaccharides, protein, fibre, lectins, and polyphenols, each of which may have its own pharmacological effects [ 3 ]. Many mushrooms or their extracts can be used as therapeutic agents, and they are generally known as medicinal mushrooms.
Lignosus rhinocerus, the tiger milk mushroom, belongs to the Polyporaceae family and is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms used by natives in Southeast Asia and southern China.
The mushroom indeed is the most popular medicinal mushrooms used by the Malaysia indigenous populations [ 4 ]. In China, L. The sclerotium of L. There are, however, very few studies on the pharmacological activites of the mushroom due mainly to its limited supply.
The mushroom proved very difficult to cultivate and, until recently, was only available by collection from the jungle. Recently, Tan [ 6 ] reported successful cultivation of the mushroom in agar, solid, and spawn medium with good yield, thus making it possible to obtain large quantity for investigation and therapeutic purpose.
Lai et al. The mushroom they used for investigation was termed Polyporus rhinocerus Cooke Aphyllophoromycetideae , which is actually synonym of Lignosus rhinocerus. They found that the hot water extract of the sclerotia significantly reduced the growth of leukemic cell lines and Sarcoma S, but, surprisingly, no effect on the breast cancer cell line was revealed [ 8 ]. It is noted that Lai et al.
Our observations showed that morphological identification of tiger milk mushroom can be erroneous as there are several species of the mushrooms from the same family that are similar morphologically unpublished observation. In this paper, we report our investigation of the antiproliferative activity of cultivar of L.
Materials and Methods 2. Materials Sclerotia from a L. Four cell lines were used in this study: MCF-7, the human breast carcinoma cell line; A, the human lung carcinoma cell line; B5, the normal human breast cell line; NL 20, the normal human lung cell line.
All other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of Cold Water Extract of L. Determination of Total Carbohydrate and Protein Content Total carbohydrate content was determined by phenol-sulphuric acid method as described by Dubois et al. Protein concentration was determined by the Bradford method [ 11 ] using bovine serum albumin BSA as standard. Cytotoxicity Assay The cytotoxic activity of L. This assay was carried out according to the method described by Ahn et al.
The cells with optimal cell density were seeded in well plate and incubated overnight for attachment. Different concentrations of the extracts were then added. After 72 hr incubation, MTT solution was added and incubated for 4 hr. All the solutions were then aspirated, and isopropanol was added to solubilize the formazan crystal.
Each measurement was performed in triplicates. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 value was determined from the percentage of the cell viability versus final concentration of the extract curve. Cells treated with IC50 dose of L. The DNA was extracted by phenol : chloroform : isoamyl 25 : 24 : 1 mixture and precipitated with equal volume of ice-cold isopropanol. DNA was electrophorized on a 1. Finally, the apoptotic DNA fragments were visualized under a UV transilluminator and photographed [ 13 ].
Fractionation of L. Carbohydrate and protein content of each fraction was determined. The cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and A cell lines of the high-molecular-weight and low-molecular-weight fractions was examined by MTT method.
Results 3. Carbohydrate and Protein Contents The cold water extract of L. The cold water extract of L.
Health benefits of wild Tiger’s Milk mushroom
Abstract Lignosus rhinocerotis Tiger milk mushroom is an important folk medicine for indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. We previously reported its de novo assembled The FIP-Lrh of amino acids Its predicted 3-dimensional model has identical folding patterns to FIP-fve and contains a partially conserved and more positively charged carbohydrates binding pocket. Overexpression of a In the same fungi family as Ling Zhi and Reishi mushroom, Tiger milk mushroom or scientifically known as Lignosus rhinocerotis, is one of the most popular medicinal mushrooms in Malaysia and specifically sought after by the Semai aborigine 1. Interestingly, these are similar to properties of a family of fungal immunomodulatory proteins FIP , initially isolated from the fruit bodies or mycelia of higher Basidiomycetes.
WO2016076702A3 - Cultivation method for lignosus rhinocerus - Google Patents
History[ edit ] The tiger milk mushroom was first reported in when a European government agent was given this product upon sailing to the South East Asian Region. In his publication, Evelyn also recorded that this fungus was used by the local people to treat diseases for which European doctors found no cure. In the same year, this fungus was scientifically documented by Mordecai Cubitt Cooke who named it as Fomes rhinocerotis based on a specimen found in Penang. Botanical Description[ edit ] Lignosus rhinocerus has a centrally stipulate pileus. Their growth is solitary, and can find only one fruit body at a time. The presence of this sclerotium can only be seen when the mushroom sprouts.