Personal history[ edit ] He was born on May 5 in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , and graduated from Peabody High School , where his friend Malcolm Cowley was also a student. He would later marry her sister Elizabeth Batterham in and have two sons, Michael and Anthony. Burke served as the editor of the modernist literary magazine The Dial in , and as its music critic from Kenneth himself was an avid player of the piano. He received the Dial Award in for distinguished service to American literature. He was the music critic of The Nation from —, and was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in
|Published (Last):||1 December 2018|
|PDF File Size:||1.24 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||15.24 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Personal history[ edit ] He was born on May 5 in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , and graduated from Peabody High School , where his friend Malcolm Cowley was also a student.
He would later marry her sister Elizabeth Batterham in and have two sons, Michael and Anthony. Burke served as the editor of the modernist literary magazine The Dial in , and as its music critic from Kenneth himself was an avid player of the piano. He received the Dial Award in for distinguished service to American literature.
He was the music critic of The Nation from —, and was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in As a result, he was able to teach and lecture at various colleges, including Bennington College , while continuing his literary work.
However, despite his stint lecturing at Universities, Burke was an autodidact and a self-taught scholar. Burke died of heart failure at his home in Andover, New Jersey , age He was a lifelong interpreter of Shakespeare and was also significantly influenced by Thorstein Veblen. He resisted being pigeonholed as a follower of any philosophical or political school of thought, and had a notable and very public break with the Marxists who dominated the literary criticism set in the s.
It is now considered to be much more faithful and explicit than H. Drawing from this work, Burke oriented his writing about language specifically to its social context.
Similarly, he studied language as involving more than logical discourse and grammatical structure because he recognized that the social context of language cannot be reduced to principles of pure reason. Burke draws a line between a Platonic and a more contemporary view of rhetoric, described as "old rhetoric" and "new rhetoric" respectively. The former is defined by persuasion by any means, while the latter is concerned with " identification.
His idea of "identification" is similar to ethos of classical rhetoric, but it also explains the use of logos and pathos in an effort to create a lasting impression on the auditors. Rhetoric forms our social identity by a series of events usually based on linguistics, but more generally by the use of any symbolic figures.
He uses the metaphor of a drama to articulate this point, where interdependent characters speak and communicate with each other while allowing the others to do the same. Also, Burke describes identification as a function of persuasive appeal.
Burke describes rhetoric as using words to move people or encourage action. Burke argued that rhetoric works to bring about change in people. This change can be evident through attitude, motives or intentions as Burke stated but it can also be physical. Calling for help is an act of rhetoric. Rhetoric is symbolic action that calls people to physical action.
Ultimately, rhetoric and persuasion become interchangeable words according to Burke. Other scholars have similar definitions of rhetoric.
Aristotle argued that rhetoric was a tool for persuading people but also for gaining information. He stated that rhetoric had the power to persuade people if the speaker knew how. One way in which Aristotle formed his arguments was through syllogism. Another example of how rhetoric was used to persuade was deliberate discourse. Here, politicians and lawyers used speech to pass or reject policies. Sally Gearhart states that rhetoric uses persuasion to induce change.
Although she argues persuasion is violent and harmful, she uses it as a tool herself to bring about change. He felt that through understanding "what is involved when we say what people are doing and why they are doing it", we could gain insight into the cognitive basis for our perception of the world. For Burke, the way in which we decide to narrate gives importance to specific qualities over others.
He believed that this could tell us a great deal about how we see the world. Dramatism[ edit ] Burke called the social and political rhetorical analysis " dramatism " and believed that such an approach to language analysis and language usage could help us understand the basis of conflict, the virtues and dangers of cooperation, and the opportunities of identification and consubstantiality.
Burke defined the rhetorical function of language as "a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols. Burke proposed that when we attribute motives to others, we tend to rely on ratios between five elements: act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. This has become known as the dramatistic pentad.
The pentad is grounded in his dramatistic method, which considers human communication as a form of action. Dramatism "invites one to consider the matter of motives in a perspective that, being developed from the analysis of drama, treats language and thought primarily as modes of action" Grammar of Motives, xxii. Burke pursued literary criticism not as a formalistic enterprise but rather as an enterprise with significant sociological impact; he saw literature as "equipment for living," offering folk wisdom and common sense to people and thus guiding the way they lived their lives.
Burke introduced the phases and their functionality through the use of a poem. Guilt needs Redemption for who would not be cleaned! Redemption needs Redeemer which is to say, a Victim! In order to alleviate the results produced by the creation of Guilt, redemption is necessitated.
Through the abstraction of redemption, Burke leads to the completion of the cycle. Pollution initially constitutes actions taken by an individual that result in the creation of Guilt.
The creation of Guilt occurs upon the rejection of a hierarchy. Challenges to relationships, changes in power, and appropriateness of behaviors to change are each contributing factors toward the formation of Guilt.
Original sin constitutes "an offense that cannot be avoided or a condition in which all people share". The establishment of Guilt necessarily leads to the need to undergo purification to cleanse the individual affected by its recognition. Purification is thus accomplished through two forms of "ritual purification. Stratification within society created by hierarchies allows for marginalization within societies. Marginalization thus is a leading factor in the creation of Guilt, and leads to the need for mortification.
Victimage is the second form of ritual purification. He contended that "People so dislike the idea of division, their dislike can easily be turned against the man or group who would so much as name it, let alone proposing to act upon it". The scapegoat takes on the sins of the impure, thus allowing redemption for the Guilty party. Unfortunately, through the course of these actions the scape goat is harnessed with the sins of the Guilty. Redemption is reached through one of two options.
Tragic redemption revolves around the idea that guilt combines with the principles of perfection and substitution in order that victimage can be utilized. This can be viewed as the "guilty is removed from the rhetorical community through either scapegoating or mortification". This option allows the sins of the guilty to be adopted by Society as a whole, ultimately making Society guilty by association. Terministic screen[ edit ] Another key concept for Burke is the Terministic screen —a set of symbols that becomes a kind of screen or grid of intelligibility through which the world makes sense to us.
Here Burke offers rhetorical theorists and critics a way of understanding the relationship between language and ideology. In Language as Symbolic Action , he writes, "Even if any given terminology is a reflection of reality, by its very nature as a terminology it must be a selection of reality; and to this extent must function also as a deflection of reality. Media today has altered terministic screens, or as Richard Toye wrote in his book Rhetoric: A Very Short Introduction, the "linguistic filters which cause us to see situations in particular fashions.
This definition of man , he argued, means that "reality" has actually "been built up for us through nothing but our symbol systems" p. Without our encyclopedias, atlases, and other assorted reference guides, we would know little about the world that lies beyond our immediate sensory experience.
What we call "reality," Burke stated, is actually a "clutter of symbols about the past combined with whatever things we know mainly through maps, magazines, newspapers, and the like about the present The same would hold true for people who believe in the tenets of free market capitalism or socialism, Freudian psychoanalysis or Jungian depth psychology, as well as mysticism or materialism. Each belief system has its own vocabulary to describe how the world works and what things mean, thus presenting its adherents with a specific reality.
Permanence and Change
Cohrs Spring One of my favorite rhetorical theorists, Kenneth Burke has done wonders for communication. Not only is he proficient in communication theory, but he is also known for creative writing, social psychology, and linguistic analysis. His most noted theory, in which I will be discussing throughout this paper, is that of dramatism. Burke has done amazing things to shape what we know about communication theory. According to Littlejohn , anyone who is writing about communication today, in some way is restating something that Burke had already created.
Dramatism Theory Explained
It reveals the nuances and complications of language as symbolic action, which in turn, opens up our perspective. According to Burke, "the act" of the Pentad is which "names what took place, in thought or deed. According to Burke, "the scene" is defined as "the background of an act, the situation in which it occurred. Burke defines the "agent" as "what person or kind of person performed the act. Burke defines the "agency" as "what instrument or instruments he used. This is associate with the motive behind the behavior, which is the main focus of the analysis. Attitude: How to prepare for an act In the edition of Grammar, Burke added a new element, Attitude, thereby making the Pentad a Hexad.
dramatism (rhetoric and composition)
It is a theory that compares life to a drama. This provides a direct route from human motivation to human relationships. It is a strategy that intends to help others view life, not live it, and be able to compare each social unit or activity as one of the five elements of a drama. How do we explain human action?