History[ edit ] The term "emotional intelligence" seems first to have appeared in a paper by Michael Beldoch,   and in the paper by B. Leuner entitled Emotional intelligence and emancipation which appeared in the psychotherapeutic journal: Practice of child psychology and child psychiatry. This definition was later broken down and refined into four proposed abilities: perceiving, using, understanding, and managing emotions. These abilities are distinct yet related.
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History[ edit ] The term "emotional intelligence" seems first to have appeared in a paper by Michael Beldoch,   and in the paper by B. Leuner entitled Emotional intelligence and emancipation which appeared in the psychotherapeutic journal: Practice of child psychology and child psychiatry.
This definition was later broken down and refined into four proposed abilities: perceiving, using, understanding, and managing emotions. These abilities are distinct yet related. Currently, there are three main models of EI: Ability model Mixed model usually subsumed under trait EI   Trait model Different models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for the assessment of the construct.
While some of these measures may overlap, most researchers agree that they tap different constructs. Specific ability models address the ways in which emotions facilitate thought and understanding. For example, emotions may interact with thinking and allow people to be better decision makers Lyubomirsky et al. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.
This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible. Using emotions — the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem-solving. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.
Understanding emotions — the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. For example, understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time. Managing emotions — the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals.
The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace. Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. Among other challenges, the consensus scoring criterion means that it is impossible to create items questions that only a minority of respondents can solve, because, by definition, responses are deemed emotionally "intelligent" only if the majority of the sample has endorsed them.
This and other similar problems have led some cognitive ability experts to question the definition of EI as a genuine intelligence. The test contains questions but it was found after publishing the test that 19 of these did not give the expected answers.
This has led Multi-Health Systems to remove answers to these 19 questions before scoring but without stating this officially. Other measurements[ edit ] Various other specific measures have also been used to assess ability in emotional intelligence. These measures include: Diagnostic Analysis of Non-verbal Accuracy  — The Adult Facial version includes 24 photographs of equal amount of happy, sad, angry, and fearful facial expressions of both high and low intensities which are balanced by gender.
The tasks of the participants is to answer which of the four emotions is present in the given stimuli. Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI.
Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. These tools developed by Goleman and Boyatzis provide a behavioral measure of the Emotional and Social Competencies.
The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal , which was created in and which can be taken as a self-report or degree assessment. Petrides "K. Petrides" proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI and has been developing the latter over many years in numerous publications.
This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self-perceived abilities and is measured by self report , as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement.
Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman model discussed above. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability.
This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it. None of these assess intelligence, abilities, or skills as their authors often claim , but rather, they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence.
There are over studies that have used the EQ-i or EQ-i 2. It has the best norms, reliability, and validity of any self-report instrument and was the first one reviewed in the Buros Mental Measures Book. The EQ-i 2. Petrides and colleagues, that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality. The psychometric properties of the TEIQue were investigated in a study on a French-speaking population, where it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and reliable.
As expected, TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits extraversion , agreeableness , openness , conscientiousness as well as inversely related to others alexithymia , neuroticism.
A number of quantitative genetic studies have been carried out within the trait EI model, which have revealed significant genetic effects and heritabilities for all trait EI scores. Better academic achievement — Emotional intelligence is correlated with greater achievement in academics as reported by teachers but generally not higher grades once the factor of IQ is taken into account. It is also negatively correlated with poor health choices and behavior.
Overall, it leads a person to self-actualization. So the whole theory is built on quicksand: there is no sound scientific basis. He suggests the concept should be re-labeled and referred to as a skill. The essence of this criticism is that scientific inquiry depends on valid and consistent construct utilization and that before the introduction of the term EI, psychologists had established theoretical distinctions between factors such as abilities and achievements, skills and habits, attitudes and values, and personality traits and emotional states.
Confusing skills with moral qualities[ edit ] Adam Grant warned of the common but mistaken perception of EI as a desirable moral quality rather than a skill. Landy suggested that the reason why some studies have found a small increase in predictive validity is a methodological fallacy, namely, that alternative explanations have not been completely considered: "EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but not with a personality measure, or with a personality measure but not with a measure of academic intelligence.
Generally, self-report EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure personality traits. In particular, neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety. Intuitively, individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI measures. The interpretations of the correlations between EI questionnaires and personality have been varied.
The prominent view in the scientific literature is the Trait EI view, which re-interprets EI as a collection of personality traits. Measures knowledge, not ability[ edit ] Further criticism has been leveled by Brody ,  who claimed that unlike tests of cognitive ability, the MSCEIT "tests knowledge of emotions but not necessarily the ability to perform tasks that are related to the knowledge that is assessed".
Measures personality and general intelligence[ edit ] New research is surfacing that suggests that ability EI measures might be measuring personality in addition to general intelligence.
These studies examined the multivariate effects of personality and intelligence on EI and also corrected estimates for measurement error which is often not done in some validation studies [cite source]. For example, a study by Schulte, Ree, Carretta ,  showed that general intelligence measured with the Wonderlic Personnel Test , agreeableness measured by the NEO-PI , as well as gender could reliably be used to predict the measure of EI ability.
They gave a multiple correlation R of. This result has been replicated by Fiori and Antonakis ,;  they found a multiple R of. Self-report measures susceptible to faking[ edit ] More formally termed socially desirable responding SDR , faking good is defined as a response pattern in which test-takers systematically represent themselves with an excessive positive bias Paulhus, This is contrasted with a response style, which is a more long-term trait-like quality.
Considering the contexts some self-report EI inventories are used in e. There are a few methods to prevent socially desirable responding on behavior inventories. Some researchers believe it is necessary to warn test-takers not to fake good before taking a personality test e. Some inventories use validity scales in order to determine the likelihood or consistency of the responses across all items.
Predictive power unsubstantiated[ edit ] Landy  distinguishes between the "commercial wing" and "the academic wing" of the EI movement, basing this distinction on the alleged predictive power of EI as seen by the two currents. According to Landy, the former makes expansive claims on the applied value of EI, while the latter is trying to warn users against these claims. As an example, Goleman asserts that "the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence.
Thus, some research shows that individuals higher in EI are seen as exhibiting more leadership behaviors. Together, Harms and Crede as well as Barling et al.
Ability-measures of EI fared worst i. However, the validity of these estimates does not include the effects of IQ or the big five personality, which correlate both with EI measures and leadership. Joseph and Newman  meta-analytically showed the same result for Ability EI. However, self-reported and Trait EI measures retain a fair amount of predictive validity for job performance after controlling Big Five traits and IQ.
As such, the predictive ability of mixed EI to job performance drops to nil when controlling for these factors. Their study shows EI may serve an identifying tool in understanding who is or is not likely to deal effectively with colleagues. Groves, McEnrue, and Shen found EI can be deliberately developed, specifically facilitating thinking with emotions FT and monitoring and regulation of emotions RE in the workplace.
In their section, "Positive Psychology and the Concept of Health", they explain. But these concepts define health in philosophical rather than empirical terms. Bullying is typically repetitive and enacted by those who are in a position of power over the victim.
A growing body of research illustrates a significant relationship between bullying and emotional intelligence. Mayer et al. EI seems to play an important role in both bullying behavior and victimization in bullying; given that EI is illustrated to be malleable, EI education could greatly improve bullying prevention and intervention initiatives.
The results of the former study supported the compensatory model: employees with low IQ get higher task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, the higher their EI. It has also been observed that there is no significant link between emotional intelligence and work attitude-behavior.
An explanation for this may suggest gender differences in EI, as women tend to score higher levels than men. Another find was discussed in a study that assessed a possible link between EI and entrepreneurial behaviors and success. By , companies and consulting firms in U. S had developed programmes that involved EI for training and hiring employees.
These findings may contribute to organizations in different ways. For instance, employees high on EI would be more aware of their own emotions and from others, which in turn, could lead companies to better profits and less unnecessary expenses. This is especially important for expatriate managers, who have to deal with mixed emotions and feelings, while adapting to a new working culture.
This is measured by self-reports and different work performance indicators, such as wages, promotions and salary increase.
Emotionale Intelligenz: Wie du deinen EQ erkennst und verbesserst
Die kurze Antwort: Ja, zum Teil. Wissenschaftler definieren Achtsamkeit heute aber auch als die intensive Aufmerksamkeit, die wir auf die Gegenwart richten — auf eine ebenso offene wie akzeptierende Weise. Wer immer ausweicht, wenn Emotionen aufkommen, kann keine emotionale Intelligenz lernen. Eine aktuelle Studie zeichnet jedoch ein anderes Bild: Danach sind vor allem Analytiker empathischer. Also entwarfen sie mehrere Versuchsreihen und stellten in einer davon beispielsweise ihre Probanden vor die Wahl: Sie sollten einem emotional verwirrten Menschen helfen und dazu… entweder einen intuitiven Ansatz und Rat finden oder einen analytischen.
Emotionale Intelligenz: Mehr Erfolg mit EQ (mit Test)