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Sixth Edition. Introduction to. Quality Control. Arizona State University. Donnelley Jefferson City. The cover was printed by R. The paper in this book was manufactured by a mill whose forest management programs include sustained yield harvesting of its timberlands.

Sustained yield harvesting principles ensure that the number of trees cut each year does not exceed the amount of new growth. This book is printed on acid-free paper. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections or of the United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA , , fax Montgomery, Douglas, C.

He received his B. Montgomery has research and teaching interests in engineering statistics including statistical quality-control techniques, design of experiments, regression analysis and empirical model building, and the application of operations research methodology to problems in manufacturing systems. He has authored and coauthored more than technical papers in these fields and is the author of twelve other books. Nelson Award, the William G.

He is a recipient of the Ellis R. Ott Award. He is a former editor of the Journal of Quality Technology, is one of the current chief editors of Quality and Reliability Engineering International, and serves on the editorial boards of several journals.

It provides comprehensive coverage of the subject from basic principles to state-of-the-art concepts and applications. The objective is to give the reader a sound understanding of the principles and the basis for applying them in a variety of situations. Although statistical techniques are emphasized throughout, the book has a strong engineering and management orientation. Extensive knowledge of statistics is not a prerequisite for using this book. Readers whose background includes a basic course in statistical methods will find much of the material in this book easily accessible.

Audience The book is an outgrowth of more than 35 years of teaching, research, and consulting in the application of statistical methods for industrial problems. It is designed as a textbook for students enrolled in colleges and universities, who are studying engineering, statistics, management, and related fields and are taking a first course in statistical quality control.

The basic quality-control course is often taught at the junior or senior level. All of the standard topics for this course are covered in detail. Some more advanced material is also available in the book, and this could be used with advanced undergraduates who have had some previous exposure to the basics or in a course aimed at graduate students.

I have also used the text materials extensively in programs for professional practitioners, including quality and reliability engineers, manufacturing and development engineers, product designers, managers, procurement specialists, marketing personnel, technicians and laboratory analysts, inspectors, and operators. Many professionals have also used the material for self-study. Chapter Organization and Topical Coverage The book contains five parts.

Part I is introductory. The first chapter is an introduction to the philosophy and basic concepts of quality improvement. It notes that quality has become a major business strategy and that organizations that successfully improve quality can increase their productivity, enhance their market penetration, and achieve greater profitability and a strong competitive advantage.

Some of the managerial and implementation aspects of quality improvement are included. DMAIC often is associated with six-sigma, but regardless of the approach taken by an organization strategically, DMAIC is an excellent tactical tool for quality professionals to employ.

Part II is a description of statistical methods useful in quality improvement. Topics include sampling and descriptive statistics, the basic notions of probability and probability distributions, point and interval estimation of parameters, and statistical hypothesis testing.

These topics are usually covered in a basic course in statistical methods; however, their presentation in this text v vi Preface is from the quality-engineering viewpoint. My experience has been that even readers with a strong statistical background will find the approach to this material useful and somewhat different from a standard statistics textbook.

Part III contains four chapters covering the basic methods of statistical process control SPC and methods for process capability analysis. Even though several SPC problem-solving tools are discussed including Pareto charts and cause-and-effect diagrams, for example , the primary focus in this section is on the Shewhart control chart. The Shewhart control chart certainly is not new, but its use in modern-day business and industry is of tremendous value.

Included are the cumulative sum and exponentially weighted moving average control charts Chapter 9 , several important univariate control charts such as procedures for short production runs, autocorrelated data, and multiple stream processes Chapter 10 , multivariate process monitoring and control Chapter 11 , and feedback adjustment techniques Chapter Some of this material is at a higher level than Part III, but much of it is accessible by advanced undergraduates or firstyear graduate students.

This material forms the basis of a second course in statistical quality control and improvement for this audience. Part V contains two chapters that show how statistically designed experiments can be used for process design, development, and improvement. Chapter 13 presents the fundamental concepts of designed experiments and introduces factorial and fractional factorial designs, with particular emphasis on the two-level system of designs.

These designs are used extensively in the industry for factor screening and process characterization. Although the treatment of the subject is not extensive and is no substitute for a formal course in experimental design, it will enable the reader to appreciate more sophisticated examples of experimental design.

Chapter 14 introduces response surface methods and designs, illustrates evolutionary operation EVOP for process monitoring, and shows how statistically designed experiments can be used for process robustness studies.

Chapters 13 and 14 emphasize the important interrelationship between statistical process control and experimental design for process improvement. Two chapters deal with acceptance sampling in Part VI. Throughout the book, guidelines are given for selecting the proper type of statistical technique to use in a wide variety of situations. Additionally, extensive references to journal articles and other technical literature should assist the reader in applying the methods described.

Supporting Text Materials Computer Software The computer plays an important role in a modern quality-control course. This edition of the book uses Minitab as the primary illustrative software package. I strongly recommend that the course have a meaningful computing component. To request this book with a student version of Minitab included, contact your local Wiley representative at www.

If your students will need DOE capability, they can download the fully functional day trial at www. Preface vii Supplemental Text Material I have written a set of supplemental materials to augment many of the chapters in the book. The supplemental material contains topics that could not easily fit into a chapter without seriously disrupting the flow. The topics are shown in the Table of Contents for the book and in the individual chapter outlines.

Some of this material consists of proofs or derivations, new topics of a sometimes more advanced nature, supporting details concerning remarks or concepts presented in the text, and answers to frequently asked questions. The supplemental material provides an interesting set of accompanying readings for anyone curious about the field.

It is available at www. Student Resource Manual The text contains answers to most of the odd-numbered exercises. This is an excellent study aid that many text users will find extremely helpful. The Student Resource Manual may be ordered in a set with the text or purchased separately. Contact your local Wiley representative to request the set for your bookstore or purchase the Student Resource Manual from the Wiley Web site. Visit the Instructor Companion Site portion of the Web site, located at www.

It contains the supplemental text material and the data sets in electronic form. It will also be used to post items of interest to text users. The Web site address is www. Click on the cover of the text you are using. I would like to thank Dr. Bill Woodall, Dr. Doug Hawkins, Dr. Joe Sullivan, Dr. George Runger, Dr. Bert Keats, Dr.

Bob Hogg, Mr. Eric Ziegel, Dr. Joe Pignatiello, Dr. John Ramberg, Dr. Ernie Saniga, Dr. Enrique Del Castillo, Dr. Sarah Streett, and Dr. Jim Alloway for their thorough and insightful comments on this and previous editions. They generously shared many of their ideas and teaching experiences with me, leading to substantial improvements in the book. Over the years since the first edition was published, I have received assistance and ideas from a great many other people.

A complete list of colleagues with whom I have interacted viii Preface would be impossible to enumerate. However, some of the major contributors and their professional affiliations are as follows: Dr. Mary R. Anderson-Rowland, Dr.

Dwayne A. Rollier, Dr. Norma F.


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