Summary[ change change source ] Buddhists believe that there are many Buddhas. The most recent one was Gautama Buddha. People who will become Buddhas someday are called " bodhisattvas. He is said to have never argued with other people, but only said what was true and useful, out of compassion for others. Buddhas are teachers who help the people who will listen.
|Published (Last):||24 July 2015|
|PDF File Size:||4.67 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||9.31 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
See Mahayana Sutras for historical background and a list of some sutras categorised by source. Wisdom in this context means the ability to see reality as it truly is. They do not contain an elaborate philosophical argument, but simply try to point to the true nature of reality, especially through the use of paradox. The basic premise is a radical non-dualism, in which every and any dichotomist way of seeing things is denied: so phenomena are neither existent, nor non-existent, but are marked by sunyata, emptiness, an absence of any essential unchanging nature.
Many sutras are known by the number of lines, or slokas, that they contained. Probably composed in its earliest form in the period bce— ce, the sutra proposes that the three yanas Shravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana, and Bodhisattvayana are not in fact three different paths leading to three goals, but one path, with one goal. Notable for the re appearance of the Buddha Prabhutaratna , who had died several aeons earlier, because it suggests that a Buddha is not inaccessible after his parinirvana, and also that his life-span is said to be inconceivably long because of the accumulation of merit in past lives.
This idea, though not necessarily from this source, forms the basis of the later Trikaya doctrine. These texts describe the origins and nature of the Western Pure Land in which the Buddha Amitabha resides.
They list the forty-eight vows made by Amitabha as a bodhisattva by which he undertook to build a Pure Land where beings are able to practise the Dharma without difficulty or distraction. The sutras state that beings can be reborn there by pure conduct and by practices such as thinking continuously of Amitabha, praising him, recounting his virtues, and chanting his name. These Pure Land sutras and the practices they recommend became the foundations of Pure Land Buddhism , which focus on the salvific power of faith in the vows of Amitabha.
Main article: Vimalakirti Sutra Composed in its earliest form some time before CE, the Bodhisattva Vimalakirti appears in the guise of a layman in order to teach the Dharma. Seen by some as a strong assertion of the value of lay practice.
Doctrinally similar to the Perfection of Wisdom texts, a major theme is the Buddhafield Buddha-kshetra , which was influential on Pure Land schools. Very popular in China , Korea and Japan where it was seen as being compatible with Confucian values.
It exists in three successive versions, two in Chinese and one in Tibetan. New sutras were added to the collection in both the intervals between these. The Gandavyuha Sutra is thought to be the source of a sect that was dedicated specifically to Vairocana , and that later gave rise to the Mahavairocana-abhisambodhi tantra. The Mahavairocana-abhisambodhi became one of the two central texts in Shingon Buddhism and was included in the Tibetan canon as a tantra of the carya class.
The Avatamsaka Sutra became the central text for the Hua-yen Jp. Kegon school of Buddhism, the most important doctrine of which is the interpenetration of all phenomena.
The Sandhinirmocana Sutra c 2nd Century CE is the earliest surviving sutra in this class and according to some Gelugpa authorities the only one. This sutra divides the teachings of the Buddha into three classes, which it calls the "Three Turnings of the Wheel of the Dharma. Moreover, the first two turnings are considered, in this system of classification, to be provisional while the third group is said to present the final truth without a need for further explication nitartha.
These texts teach that every being has a Tathagatagarbha: variously translated as Buddha nature , Buddha seed, Buddha matrix. It is this Buddha nature, Buddha Essence or Buddha Principle, this aspect of every being that is itself already enlightened, that enables beings to be liberated.
One of the most important responses of Buddhism to the problem of immanence and transcendence. The Tathagatagarbha doctrine was very influential in East Asian Buddhism, and the idea in one form or another can be found in most of its schools.
The well-known Lankavatara Sutra , composed sometime around the 4th century, is sometimes included in thevijnapti-matra group associated with the Yogacara teachings , however D. Suzuki sees the Lankavatara as clearly pre-dating and distinguished from Yogacara. The Lankavatara Sutra was influential in the Chan or Zen schools.
Both seem to have been finalised by about the 5th century, although some parts of them are considerably older. Among them was the Ajitasena Sutra. The Ajitasena Sutra appears to be a mixture of Mahayana and pre-Mahayana ideas. It occurs in a world where monasticism is the norm, which is typical of the Pali Suttas; there is none of the usual antagonism towards the Shravakas also called the Hinayana or the notion of Arahantship, which is typical of Mahayana Sutras such as the White Lotus, or Vimalakirti Nirdesha.
However, the sutra also has an Arahant seeing all the Buddha fields, it is said that reciting the name of the sutra will save beings from suffering and the hell realms, and a meditative practice is described that allows the practitioner to see with the eyes of a Buddha, and to receive teachings from them that are very much typical of Mahayana Sutras.
Indian treatises[ edit ] The Mahayana commentarial and exegetical literature is vast. Many commentarial texts are called Shastras , a by-word used when referring to a scripture. Extending this meaning, the shastra is commonly used to mean a treatise or text written in explanation of some idea, especially in matters involving religion.
In Buddhism , a shastra is often a commentary written at a later date to explain an earlier scripture or sutra. Central to much of Mahayana philosophy are the works of the Indian scholar Nagarjuna.
Unlike the Da zhidu lun, it was studied and transmitted in both the East Asian Buddhist and the Tibetan Buddhist traditions. Their authorship remains disputed by modern scholars however. It is notably a favorite text of the fourteenth Dalai Lama. The text begins with an elaborate ritual worship section, but goes on to expound the six perfections. The 9th chapter is a critique of various views on perfect wisdom from the Madhyamika point of view.
Shantideva also produced the Shikshasamuccaya , which is a compendium of doctrines from a huge range of Mahayana Sutras — some of which no longer exist and therefore are known only through his quotes. While it is traditionally attributed to Ashvaghosha , most scholars now hold it is a Chinese composition.
This was often done by traveling overland to India , as recorded in the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions , by the monk Xuanzang c. Another important school of Chinese Buddhism is Huayan , which focused on developing their philosophical texts from the Avatamsaka Sutra.
An important patriarch of this school is Fazang who wrote many commentaries and treatises. The Tripitaka Koreana , which was crafted in two versions the first one was destroyed by fire during the Mongol invasions of Korea , is a Korean collection of the Tripitaka carved onto 81, wooden printing blocks during the 13th century.
Still intact in good condition after some years, it has been described by the UNESCO committee as "one of the most important and most complete corpus of Buddhist doctrinal texts in the world". Another key genre is that of compilations of Zen master biographies, such as the Transmission of the Lamp. Buddhist poetry was also an important contribution to the literature of the tradition. After the arrival of Chinese Buddhism in Japan, Korea and Vietnam; they developed their own traditions and literature in the local language.
Dhamma in Sinhala – Damsara
See Mahayana Sutras for historical background and a list of some sutras categorised by source. Wisdom in this context means the ability to see reality as it truly is. They do not contain an elaborate philosophical argument, but simply try to point to the true nature of reality, especially through the use of paradox. The basic premise is a radical non-dualism, in which every and any dichotomist way of seeing things is denied: so phenomena are neither existent, nor non-existent, but are marked by sunyata, emptiness, an absence of any essential unchanging nature. Many sutras are known by the number of lines, or slokas, that they contained. Probably composed in its earliest form in the period bce— ce, the sutra proposes that the three yanas Shravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana, and Bodhisattvayana are not in fact three different paths leading to three goals, but one path, with one goal.
Buddhism Free Audio & Video