Standard ASTM E Standard for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe Tube This practice covers a procedure for detecting discon- tinuities in metal pipe and steel tubing during a volumetric exami- nation using ultrasonic methods. These procedures have been successful with smaller sizes. These procedures are intended to ensure that proper beam angles and beam shapes are used to provide full volume coverage of pipes and tubes, including those with low ratios of outside diameter to wall thickness , and to avoid spurious signal responses when examining small-diameter, thin-wall tubes. The procedure in Annex A1 is applicable to pipe and tubing used in nuclear and other special and safety applica- tions.
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You are on page 1of 11 Search inside document Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. It is the 1. Specific techniques of the bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. Referenced Documents example, as described in Guide E , and angle beam immersion techniques. Artificial reflectors consisting of 2.
These may be speci- fied upon contractual agreement between the using parties. Testing Personnel6 1. Terminology 3. The SI equivalents are in parentheses and may be approximate. Published June Last previous edition approved in as E - SE in the Code. NW, Washington D. Summary of Practice 6. Basis of Application 4. Multiple search units may be employed for interlaced scanning in 6. Significance and Use agreement. If speci- tions or interference from other instruments and search units fied in the contractual agreement, NDT agencies shall be being used for simultaneous examinations in other directions or qualified and evaluated as described in Practice E The along other scan paths.
See 7. Personnel Qualification from irregularities such as grain boundaries and surface rough- 7. A higher minimum certified by the employer or certifying agency, as applicable. Surface Condition produce an approximate 45 degrees beam-center shear wave in the tube or pipe wall. For material with an outside diameter- 8.
The methods used for used to ensure intersection with the inside surface. This does cleaning and preparing the surfaces for ultrasonic examination not ensure detection of midwall discontinuities See Reference shall not be detrimental to the base metal or the surface finish. Excessive surface roughness or scratches can produce signals that interfere with the examination.
Apparatus a stable manner and at the desired scan pitch helix. For 9. If larger material that is tion procedure described in Section An independent chan- not straight is to be examined the search units may have to be nel or channels of instrumentation shall be employed to supported in a follower mechanism to compensate for this. The instrument Couplant pulse repetition rate shall be capable of being adjusted to a Rust inhibitors, softeners, and wetting agents may be depending on the angle, frequency, and vibrational mode of the added to the couplant.
The couplant liquid with all the interrogating sound beam. It is recognized that in normal machining practice, a radius provide adequate coupling efficiency. To prevent spurious will be generated. Measurements may be made by ultrasonic transmission when the tubing is precoated several hours before optical, replicating, or other agreed upon techniques. Unless the examination. Reference Standards depth shall be within At the option of the testing agency, diameter, wall thickness, material, surface finish, and acousti- shallower notches may be used to provide a more stringent cal properties as the material to be examined.
The reference examination. Two acceptable modifications are listed reference notches. Modification a is preferred; however, modification b may be The use of This depends upon the common notch configurations and the dimensions to be mea- intercepting beam width to notch length.
Reflection amplitudes from V-, square-, and Standardization of Apparatus upon with the contracting agency. In the event that the The response from the inner and outer surface notches Use the lesser of the two standardization criteria may be specified. On large diameter or This signal may be observed, but not gated, as a distance and inside diameter curvature, a separate rejection supplement to the required checking of the reference standard level may be established for the inner and outer surface to provide increased assurance that the equipment is function- notches.
If such a signal does not exist, make more frequent equipment standardization checks. NOTE 6Distance-Amplitude Correction A method of compensating for the reduction in ultrasonic signal amplitude as a function of material Details of the procedures used to examination, unless the complete standardization procedure establish and apply the distance-amplitude correction DAC curve shall be established by the using party or parties.
The pipe or tubing to be examined and the search unit NOTE 9Some traversing mechanisms do not allow examination of assembly shall have a rotating translating motion relative to pipe or tube ends.
When this condition exists, clearly indicate the extent each other such that a helical scan path will be described on the of this effect, per tube, in the examination report. Maintain the speed of rotation Axial scanning with circumferential indexing may be used to provide equivalent Coverage shall Alternatively, the using party or parties may specify specific be based upon the maximum effective size of the search unit, acceptance criteria. Procedure rejectable indications are detected, the material shall be con- sidered as having passed the ultrasonic examination, except as If, upon ultrasonic reexamination of the transverse discontinuities, under identical conditions used for reworked pipe or tube, no rejectable indications are detected, the material equipment standardization see Note 7.
NOTE 11Care should be exercised to ensure that reworking a pipe or NOTE 7Identical conditions include all instrument settings, mechani- tube does not change its acceptability with respect to other requirements cal motions, search unit position and alignment relative to the pipe or tube, of the material specification such as wall thickness, ovality, surface finish, liquid couplant, and any other factors that affect the performance of the length, and the like.
NOTE 8If a requirement exists for both longitudinal and transverse Documentation notches the following three options are available: a Each pipe or tube is passed through a single-channel examination Make these checks prior to any examination run, record containing objective evidence of the examination results prior to equipment shutdown after an examination run, and at shall be obtained for pipe or tube examined.
This may be in the least every four hours during continuous equipment operation. It shall The supplier shall maintain tors. When requested by the The report shall include at least the following information: Keywords Search unit element size and focused beam depends critically upon freedom from discontinuities over a length shall be suitable for achieving reliable detection of certain maximum size, certain additional ultrasonic examina- defects equivalent in size to the reference notches at the tion procedures are required to assure that the required quality scanning pitch or index used.
When examination of heavy-wall standards are met. The immersion method is almost always pipes and tubes is required the focal length, refraction angle required for examining tubes for these uses. In some instances, and included beam angle of focused search units shall be such as field examination or where part contact with water is suitable for complete through-wall coverage See 4.
These proce- of the helical scan path see A2. The incident suitable refraction angle in the pipe or tube wall to provide and refracted beams in these cases are pictured as being complete coverage of the pipe or tube wall thickness See 4. In A refraction angle of 45 degrees is typically used when pipes and tubes with diameters several times larger than the examining pipe or tubes with a diameter-to-wall thickness ratio length of a contact search unit, the general beam shapes are of no less than about 10 to 1.
For many materials a 45 degree approximately the same. This may be achieved in the A1. This is cally line focused immersion search units are preferred for often a convenient initial adjustment during system standard- critical examinations and for larger quantities See References ization.
If it is determined that a required in scanning from one to other to achieve good signal lower refraction angle would be beneficial, a wedge to produce balance during set-up.
For ease of fabrication, the inner surface that angle may be used. When b Apply the search unit, with a suitable film of couplant, required, transverse outer surface and inner surface reference to the surface of the reference standard in the vicinity of the notches are typically placed in the same manner near the longitudinal reference notches. Direct the search unit beam in opposite end of the reference standard from the longitudinal one circumferential direction.
Adjust the gain control to set diameters and stiffness. The relative responses from both the inner and outer scanning procedure until the signal from that notch, at a node surface notches should be as nearly equal as possible and adjacent to that used for the outer surface notch signal, is practical. Some differences in this procedure are required, as maximum. Record the peak amplitude of the signal from the described below, depending upon whether the contact or inner surface notch.
The relative response from the inner and outer stable manner and at the desired scan pitch, considering surface notches shall be as nearly equal as possible by selection conditions for achieving satisfactory worst case interception of the pair of adjacent inner surface and outer surface notch and required scan path overlap.
See Annex A2. Use the lesser of the two responses to establish the rejection level. On large-diameter or heavy- A1. It is distance and inside diameter curvature, a separate rejection important to note however that it is more difficult to obtain level may be established for the inner and outer surface repeatable and accurate results with this technique because notches, or, in this case, DAC may be used to balance the See 1 : signal amplitudes from the outer surface and inner surface a It is difficult to maintain uniform sensitivity during notches.
Any of the apparatus the incident angle to achieve good balance of the signals from types listed in Note 1 4.
ASTM E 213
More E Scope 1. Specific techniques of the ultrasonic method to which this practice applies include pulse-reflection techniques, both contact and non-contact for example, as described in Guide E and Practice E , and angle beam immersion techniques, both conventional and phased array. Artificial reflectors consisting of longitudinal, and, when specified by the using party or parties, transverse reference notches placed on the surfaces of a reference standard are employed as the primary means of standardizing the ultrasonic system. These procedures have been successful with smaller sizes. These may be specified upon contractual agreement between the using parties.
ASTM E213 Standard for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe Tube
More E Scope 1. Specific techniques of the ultrasonic method to which this practice applies include pulse-reflection techniques, both contact and non-contact for example, as described in Guide E , and angle beam immersion techniques. Artificial reflectors consisting of longitudinal, and, when specified by the using party or parties, transverse reference notches placed on the surfaces of a reference standard are employed as the primary means of standardizing the ultrasonic system. These procedures have been successful with smaller sizes. These may be specified upon contractual agreement between the using parties.