They are the masters of the classical methods for self tuning controllers. The book is made for an industrial audience and PhD students in control theory. Those control methods is most used for hydraulic and electrical servo systems in space engineering and flight engineering and also in advanced control engineering problems for robotics at the industry. Have a look at this. It also work for embedded systems. The green signal is the input signal and the black signal is the output signal.

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It offers an excellent perspective on techniques as well as an active knowledge of key approaches. Bibliographical Note This Dover edition, first published in , is a revised and corrected prinTlN ng of the second edition published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

The authors have provided a new preface for this edition. Adaptive control systems. Wittenmark, Bjorn. We also regularly obtained requests from colleagues all over the world, who are using the book, and it is a real pleasure to tell them that the book is available in print again.

Even if the popularity of adaptive con trol has decreased somewhat in the international conferences it is interesting to see that the number of applications are increasing. Systems for adaptive cruise control and adaptive optics are typical examples. Adaptation is also an important mechanism in many biological systems This edition is based on Addison-Wesley Edition, we have corrected some errors that are known to us and we have replaced a few figures.

A Solutions Manual for the book is also available for instructors. The particular methods for automatic tuning, gain scheduling and continuous adaptation are still highly relevant as are the model reference adaptive controller and the self-tuner. The simulation tool used in the book is Simnon but the simulatio code and examples can easily be converted to other simulation packages A specific feature of the book is the mixture between theoretical discussions and practical aspects ofadaptive control.

This makes the book useful for courses as well as for engineers implementing adaptive control systems The specific products we described are still in production today, many of them have been upgraded. Practically all PId controllers developed today are using some form of automatic tuning Use of gain scheduling has increased dramatically.

Apart from the applications mentioned in the book it is also used in Delta v from Emerson. Adaptive techniques are also starting to be widely used in the automotive industry.

The Preface to Dower Edition so called adaptive cruise control is, however, not an adaptive system but an ordinary feedback system. Minimum variance control has had a renaissance in the form of the harris index, which is used as a basis for judging the quality of regulation in process control. It is a small step to apply the self-tuning regulator to make sure that good regulation is maintained continuously.

The distributed control systems described have been updated but self-tuning is still available. The dialysis system from Gambro is today using gain-scheduling after a redesign of the flow system, Adaptive techniques also have a role to make many control systems easier to use.

S 00 Lund. It is also of increasing practical importance, since adaptive techniques are being used more and more in industrial control systems. However, there are still many unsolved theoretical and practical issues Goal of the book Our goal is to give an introduction and an overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive control Since knowledge about adaptive techniques is widely scattered in the lit.

In the book we introduce the basic ideas of adaptive control and compare different apprcaches, Practical aspects such as implementation and applications are presented in depth. These are very important for the understanding of the advantages and shortcomings of adaptive control. This book has evolved from many years of research and teaching in the field. After learning the material in the book a reader should have a good per spective of adaptive techniques, an active knowledge of the key approaches and a good sense of when adaptive techniques can be used and when other methods are more appropriate The new edition Adaptive control is a dynamic field of research and indus trial applications Much new knowledge has appeared which by itself motivates a new edition We have used the first edition of the book to teach to a wide variet of audiences, in regular university courses, courses to engineers in industry, and short courses at conferences.

These experiences combined with advances in research, have shaped the major revisions made in the new edition. We L viii Preface to Addison-Wesley edition have also benefited from feedback of students and colleagues in industry and universities, who have used the first edition of the book.

New chapters have been added, and the material has been reorganized Most of the chapters have been substantially revised. In the revision we have also given more emphasis to the connection between different design methods in adaptive control. There is a major change in the way we deal with the theary In the first edition we relied on mathematics from a wide variety of sour In the new edition we have to a large extent developed the results from first principles. To make this possible we have made stronger assumptions in a few cases, but the material is now much easier to teach.

The reorganization of the material also makes it easier to use the book for different audiences The first edition had two introductory chapters; they have now been com pressed to one. In the first edition we started with model-reference adaptive systems following the historical tradition. In the second edition we start with parameter estimation and the self-tuning regulator. This has several advan tages, one is that students can start to simulate and experiment with computer based adaptive control at a much earlier state another is that system ident fication gives the natural background and the key concepts required to under- stand many aspects of adaptive control The material on self-tuning control has been expanded substantially hy introducing an extra chapter This has made it possible to give a strict separa- tion between deterministic and stochastic self-tuners.

This is advantageous in courses which are restricted to the deterministic case The chapter on model-reference adaptive control has been expanded sub tantially. The key results on stability theory are now derived from first prin ciples.

This makes it much casier to teach to students who lack a background in stahility theory. A new section on adaptive control of nonlinear systems has also been added The reorganization makes the transformation from algorithms to theory much smoother.

The chapter on theory now naturally follows the development of nonlinear stability theory. The presentation of the theory has been modified substantially. A new section on stability of time-varying systems has been added. This makes it possible to get a much better understanding of adaptation of feedforward gains.

It also is a good transition to the nonlinear case. Materia on the nonlinear behavior of adaptive systems has also been added. This adds substantially to the understanding of the behavior of adaptive systems The chapter on practical aspects and implementation has been rewritten completely to reflect the increased experience of practical use of adaptive con- trol.

It has been very rewarding to observe the drastically increased industrial use of adaptive control. This has influenced the revision of the chapter on appl cations. For example, adaptive control is now used extensively in automobiles Many examples and simulations are given throughout the book to illustrate deas and theory.

Numerous problems are also given. There are theoretical problems as well as problems in which computers must be used for analysis and simulations. The examples and problems give the reader good insight into Preface to Addison-Wesley Edition ix properties, design procedures, and implementation of adaptive controllers.

To maintain a reasonable size of the book we have also done careful pruning To summarize, new research and new experiences have made it possible to present the field of adaptive control in what we hope is a better way. Outline of the book Background Material The first chapter gives a broad presentation of adap- tive control and background for its use. Real-time estimation, which is an es sential part of adaptive control, is introduced in Chapter 2. Both discrete-time and continuous-time estimation are covered Self-tuning Regulators and Model-reference Adaptive Systems Chapters 3, 4 and 5 give two basic developments of adaptive control: self-tuning regulators STR and model-reference adaptive systems MRAS.

Today we do not make a distinction between these two approaches, since they are actually equivalent. We have tried to follow the historical development by mainly treating Mras in continuous time and stR in discrete time.

By doing so it is possible to cover many aspecte of adaptive regulators. These chapters mainly cover the ideas and basic properties of the controllers. They also serve as a source of algorithms for adaptive control Theory Chapter 6 gives deeper coverage of the theory of adaptive con Questions such as stability, convergence, and robustness are discussed Stochastic adaptive control is treated in Chapter 7.

Depending on the back ground of the students, some of the material in Chapters 6 and 7 can be omitted in an introductory course Broadening the view Automatic tuning of regulators, which is rapidly gain ing industrial acceptance, is presented in Chapter 8.

Gain scheduling is dis- cussed in Chapter 9. Even though adaptive controllers are very useful tools they are not the only ways to deal with systems that have varying parameters Since we believe that it is useful for an engineer to have several ways of solving a problem, alternatives to adaptive control are also included.

Practical Aspects and Applications Chapter 1l gives suggestions for the implementation of adaptive controllers. The guidelines are based on practical experience in using adaptive controllers on real processes. Chapter 12 is a sum- mary of applications and description of some commercial adaptive controllers The applications show that adaptive control can be used in many different types of processes, but also that all applications have special features that must be considered to obtain a good control system Perspectives Finally, Chapter 13 contains a brief review of some areas closely related to adaptive control that we have not been able to cover in the book Connections to adaptive signal processing, expert systems, and neural networks are ven x Preface to Addison-Wesley edition Prerequisites The hook is for a course at the graduate level for engineering majors.

It is assumed that the reader already has good knowledge in automatic control and a basic knowledge in sampled data systems. At our university the course can be taken after an introductory course in feedback control and a course in digital control. The intent is also that the book should be useful for an industrial audience. Course Configurations The book has been organized so that it can be used in different ways.

An introductory course in adaptive control could cover Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11 12, and A more advanced course might include all chapters in the book. A course for an industrial audience could contain Chapters 1, parts of Chapters 2 3, 4, and 5, and Chapters 8, 9, 11, and To get the full benefit of a course, it is important to supplement lectures with problem-solving sessions, simulation exercises, and laboratory experiments Simulation tools Computer simulation is an indispensible tool for understanding the behavior of adaptive systems.

Most of the simulations in the book are done by using the interactive simulation package Simnon, which has been developed at our de partment. Simnon is available for IBM-PC compatible computers and also for several workstations and mainframe computers. Supplements Complete solutions are available from your sales representative.

We therefore encourage all readers to write to us about errors,.

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## Computer-Controlled Systems: Theory and Design

Includes index. ISBN 1. Adaptive control systems. A67 Where those designations appear in this book, and Addison- Wesley was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys- tem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

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## ISBN 13: 9780201558661

Intuitively, an adaptive controller is thus a controller that can modify its behavior in response to changes in the dynamics of the process and the character of the disturbances. Since ordinary feedback also attempts to reduce the effects of disturbances and plant uncertainty, the question of the difference between feedback control and adaptive control immediately arises. Over the years there have been many attempts to define adaptive control formally. At an early symposium in a long discussion ended with the following suggestion: "An adaptive system is any physical system that has been designed with an adaptive viewpoint.

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## Adaptive Control Astrom

Features a broad introduction to adaptive control techniques and background for their use, and a deeper coverage of adaptive control theory from deterministic and stochastic viewpoints. DLC: Adaptive control systems. From the Inside Flap: Adaptive control is a fascinating field for study and research. It is also of increasing practical importance, since adaptive techniques are being used more and more in industrial control systems. However, there are still many unsolved theoretical and practical issues. Goal of the Book Our goal is to give an introduction and an overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive control.