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Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all that is known about them. Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4, years. The Arcaico and Igneri co-existed on the island between the 4th and 10th centuries. They called it Boriken, meaning "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord". This lasted until Columbus arrived in He later served as the first governor of the island.
At the beginning of the 16th century, the Spanish people began to colonize the island. The population suffered extremely high fatalities from epidemics of European infectious diseases. Other nearby islands, like Cuba, Saint-Domingue, and Guadeloupe, attracted more of the slave trade than Puerto Rico, probably because of greater agricultural interests in those islands, on which colonists had developed large sugar plantations and had the capital to invest in the Atlantic slave trade.
With no significant industries or large-scale agricultural production as yet, enslaved and free communities lodged around the few littoral settlements, particularly around San Juan, also forming lasting Afro-creole communities. By the end of the 16th century, the Spanish Empire was diminishing and, in the face of increasing raids from European competitors, the colonial administration throughout the Americas fell into a "bunker mentality". San Juan served as an important port-of-call for ships driven across the Atlantic by its powerful trade winds.
Historians consider this event the worst attack on San Juan. Though the Dutch set the village on fire, they failed to conquer the Morro, and its batteries pounded their troops and ships until Hendricksz deemed the cause lost. Urban planning responded to the needs of keeping the colony in Spanish hands.
Late colonial period Hacienda La Fortuna. A sugar mill complex in Puerto Rico painted by Francisco Oller in Brooklyn Museum During the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Spain concentrated its colonial efforts on the more prosperous mainland North, Central, and South American colonies.
With the advent of the lively Bourbon Dynasty in Spain in the s, the island of Puerto Rico began a gradual shift to more imperial attention. More roads began connecting previously isolated inland settlements to coastal cities, and coastal settlements like Arecibo, Mayaguez, and Ponce began acquiring importance of their own, separate from San Juan.
By the end of the 18th century, merchant ships from an array of nationalities threatened the tight regulations of the Mercantilist system, which turned each colony solely toward the European metropole and limited contact with other nations. Slavers, which had made but few stops on the island before, began selling more enslaved Africans to growing sugar and coffee plantations.
Fierce fighting continued for the next days with Spanish troops. Both sides suffered heavy losses. These parliamentary and constitutional reforms were in force from to , and again from to They were twice reversed during the restoration of the traditional monarchy by Ferdinand VII.
The movement was discovered, and Governor Miguel de la Torre had its members imprisoned or exiled. To increase its hold on its last two New World colonies, the Spanish Crown revived the Royal Decree of Graces of as a result of which , immigrants, mainly Spaniards, settled on the island in the period up until the American conquest.
Printed in three languages—Spanish, English, and French—it was intended to also attract non-Spanish Europeans, with the hope that the independence movements would lose their popularity if new settlers had stronger ties to the Crown. Hundreds of non-Spanish families, mainly from Corsica , France , Germany , Ireland , Italy and Scotland, also immigrated to the island.
Puerto Rico still receives Spanish and European immigration. The Lares revolutionary flag of , also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico Poverty and political estrangement with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in known as Grito de Lares.
Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico in , "with provisions for periods of apprenticeship". Many joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee , founded on December 8, , and continued their quest for Puerto Rican independence. In , Antonio Mattei Lluberas and the local leaders of the independence movement in Yauco organized another uprising, which became known as the Intentona de Yauco.
They raised what they called the Puerto Rican flag, which was adopted as the national flag. The local conservative political factions opposed independence. Rumors of the planned event spread to the local Spanish authorities who acted swiftly and put an end to what would be the last major uprising in the island to Spanish colonial rule. This bilaterally agreed-upon charter maintained a governor appointed by the King of Spain — who held the power to annul any legislative decision — and a partially elected parliamentary structure.
General elections were held in March and the new government began to function on July 17, Part of his strategy called for the acquisition of colonies in the Caribbean, which would serve as coaling and naval stations.
They would serve as strategic points of defense with the construction of a canal through the Isthmus of Panama , to allow easier passage of ships between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Army, William H. Seward , the former Secretary of State under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson , had also stressed the importance of building a canal in Honduras , Nicaragua or Panama. The U. Senate did not approve his annexation proposal, and Spain rejected the U.
By , the U. Office of Naval Intelligence had prepared a plan that included military operations in Puerto Rican waters. After the U. Spain relinquished sovereignty over Cuba , but did not cede it to the U. The Foraker Act of gave Puerto Rico a certain amount of civilian popular government, including a popularly elected House of Representatives.
The upper house and governor were appointed by the United States. It was authorized a non-voting member of Congress, by the title of "Resident Commissioner", who was appointed. In addition, this Act extended all U. Internal Revenue laws. Congress retained the power to annul acts of the Puerto Rico legislature. Congress as "unconstitutional", and in violation of the Foraker Act.
It authorized the popular election of the Resident Commissioner to a four-year term. Soldiers of the 65th Infantry training in Salinas, Puerto Rico August Natural disasters, including a major earthquake and tsunami in and several hurricanes , as well as the Great Depression, impoverished the island during the first few decades under U.
He organized a protest at the University of Puerto Rico in , in which four were killed by police. In , U. Tydings did not achieve passage of the bill. The Insular Police, similar to the National Guard , opened fire upon unarmed  cadets and bystanders alike. In the aftermath, on April 2, , Tydings introduced a bill in Congress calling for independence for Puerto Rico.
This bill ultimately was defeated. In order to be eligible, applicants must have been born in Puerto Rico, born outside of Puerto Rico to a Puerto Rican—born parent, or be an American citizen with at least one year of residence in Puerto Rico. United States unincorporated organized territory with commonwealth constitution —present In , the U.
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Y-Rods[ edit ] George Casely uses a hazel twig to attempt to find water on the land around his Devon farm Traditionally, the most common dowsing rod is a forked Y-shaped branch from a tree or bush. Some dowsers prefer branches from particular trees, and some prefer the branches to be freshly cut. Hazel twigs in Europe and witch-hazel in the United States are traditionally commonly chosen, as are branches from willow or peach trees. The two ends on the forked side are held one in each hand with the third the stem of the Y pointing straight ahead.
Ley 28 de 1943 - Colombia
Main article: Kinsey Reports Kinsey is widely regarded as the first major figure in American sexology ; his research is cited as having paved the way for a deeper exploration into sexuality among sexologists and the general public, as well as liberating female sexuality. Kinsey had been studying the variations in mating practices among gall wasps. During this time, he developed a scale measuring sexual orientation, now known as the Kinsey scale , which ranges from 0 to 6, where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 is exclusively homosexual ; a rating of X for "no socio-sexual contacts or reactions" was later added. In , Kinsey delivered a lecture to a faculty discussion group at Indiana University, his first public discussion of the topic, wherein he attacked the "widespread ignorance of sexual structure and physiology" and promoted his view that "delayed marriage" that is, delayed sexual experience was psychologically harmful. Kinsey obtained research funding from the Rockefeller Foundation , which enabled him to further study human sexual behavior. These publications later became known as the Kinsey Reports. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the s and s.